Introduction to Clothing Industry:
In the history of RMG industry Mr. Wesanthal, a German immigrant in London invented first sewing needle in 1755. More then 34 years later in 1789 English man Thomas Saint invented first sewing machine in the World, Which is established as a real sewing machine. After having the machine, Industrial concept was grownup and first garment industry was setup in Paris with 80 machines in 1821 about 183 years back. In 1856 John Barrel setup a garment factory with three machines in Leeds, U.K. In the way the RMG industry grownup in different places in the World with tremendous technological development.
The first garment factory in Bangladesh was setup in the late 70s, named Reaz garment industry, played a pioneer role by exporting ten thousand pieces of shirt to France. Now we are having 4200 garment industry in Bangladesh. At present RMG units in Bangladesh is employing 1.8 million of people and more than 2 million are working indirectly surrounding the industry and about 80% workers are female. Bangladesh have so far exports apparels to almost 85 countries but USA is the largest market and more than 75% export earnings from RMG of the total export of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh has put in an impressive performance in last two decades in tapping its comparative and competitive advantage in manufacturing and exporting ready made garments at most competitive price. But now the industry is going to face with the new challenges of the WTO era, From January 2005. All the WTO apparels manufacturing members will have unrestricted access to all markets including European, American and Canadian markets.
The competing countries are preparing themselves with their government policy supports. If we do not become careful from now on, government would not come forward with appropriate policy and support. It will be very difficult to over come the challenges. BGMEA already has been taken various steps to face the challenges in the global competition in RMG sector.
Mainly there are three types of garment industry in RMG sector as follows:
Woven garment industry: The industry manufacturing garments and using woven fabrics.
Example: Denim Fabrics, Twill Fabrics, Canvas Fabrics (Shirt, Trouser, Blouse,
Sleeping gown etc).
Knit garment industry (Cut & sew): The industry producing garments and using knitted fabric.
Example: Single jersey, interlock, Rib (T-shirt. Polo shirt, Tank top etc)
Fully Fashion: The industry producing knitted garments and using yarn as main materials instead of fabric.
Example: Sweater, Pullover, Cardigan